What happens after a stroke
A stroke is when part of the brain doesn’t get oxygen. This can happen if a blood vessel to the brain gets blocked, or if there is a bleed in your brain. A stroke causes some of the cells in your brain to die. This can cause multiple problems.
Stroke often causes paralysis of 1 or more of the muscles of your arm and leg on one side of your body. This is called hemiplegia. Or you may have a less severe condition called hemiparesis. This is weakness on 1 side of your body. One or more of these muscles might feel tight instead of weak. In general, stroke might increase or decrease the normal tension (muscle tone) in these muscles. A stroke can also lead to numbness or less feeling on the affected side of the body.
This lack of feeling can lead to more problems, because it may make you less aware that a part of your body is out of alignment. This can lead to complications, such as chronic shoulder pain or partial shoulder dislocation. If you are unable to move a part of your body, this can lead to other problems such as pressure sores.
Why proper positioning after a stroke is important
After a stroke, you may have less ability to move certain parts of your body on your own. This can lead to a number of problems such as:
- Pressure sores
- Chest infections
- Blood clots in the legs
- Blood clots that travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism)
- Urinary tract infections
- Less range of motion in a joint
- Permanent muscle shortening (contracture)
- Partial separation of your shoulder joint
- Muscle shrinkage
- Blood pressure problems
- Chronic pain in an affected limb
- Muscle spasticity
Getting in and out of bed as soon as possible after your stroke can reduce the chances of having these problems. You may be at risk of some of these problems even if you are able to get out of bed for part of the day. A caregiver will need to help you change your position every few hours. Your positioning needs will depend on how severe your stroke was and which parts of your body were affected.
In all cases, proper positioning helps you prevent more harm to your affected limbs. Good positioning also helps prevent future pain and helps maintain the normal range of motion in your muscles.
Setting up your room
You will need to position objects in your room so that your affected side gets as much stimulation as possible. You will need to make the stroke-affected side of your body work harder. You can do this by:
- Arranging the furniture in the room so you have to turn your head toward your injured side for eye contact
- Setting up your bed so you get in and out of it with your affected arm and leg
- Placing your table on your affected side for meals, so you have to look past your area of vision problems
- Placing your TV so you have to turn your affected side when watching
- Telling visitors and medical caregivers to approach you from your affected side
Good positioning when lying down
For all lying down positions, the bed should be flat. In general, avoid the half-lying position. This position can worsen muscle tightness.
- When lying on your affected side, use 1 or 2 pillows for your head. Your affected shoulder should be positioned comfortably. Place your unaffected leg forward on 1 or 2 pillows. Place more pillows in front and behind you. This is an important position, as it increases awareness of your affected side as you are lying on the bed. It also leaves your unaffected side available for tasks.
- When lying on your unaffected side, use 1 or 2 pillows for your head. Your affected shoulder should be forward with your arm supported on another pillow. Place your affected leg backward on 1 or 2 more pillows. Place a pillow behind you. This position can let you practice doing tasks with your affected side, if possible.
- When lying on your back, place 3 pillows supporting both your shoulders and your head. Place your affected arm on a fourth pillow. Keep your feet in a neutral position. You can also place another pillow beneath your affected hip. You don’t need to stay in this position if you find it uncomfortable.
Good positioning when sitting up
- When sitting in a chair or wheelchair, sit well back into the center of the chair or wheelchair. Place your arms well forward onto 2 pillows on a table. Your feet should be flat on the floor. Keep your knees directly above your feet. The nursing staff will help you spend some time in this position as soon as possible after your stroke. Over time you will be able to spend a longer period of time in this position. Get help right away if you start slipping down while you are sitting in a chair or wheelchair.
- When sitting in bed, sit upright, supported by pillows. Place both arms on pillows. Keep your legs supported for comfort. Sitting in bed is usually only advised for limited periods, since it is hard to keep up proper posture in this position.
Aids to help with positioning
Your physical therapist may make show you other positions that are safe and comfortable for you. You may need to use supports, like wedge pillows. You may also need slings or braces, to help keep your arm and leg in a safe position.
Watching your recovery
As you recover, your health care team will continue to assess what positions are best for you. As you regain full function, you may be able to make fewer changes to your positioning.